第11話 「ダーリンの浮気」

A) 基礎編


ダーレン: “Adjectives to be used in copy describing her: Provocative, dazzling ethereal.… Get head shots featuring her large, soft, dark eyes. …… Janine holding perfume bottle in her long, slender fingers.”
ダーレン: “Janine, why don’t you try your hand here, stroking the bear’s nose.”
分詞構文前 : “The suspect opened the drawer and took out a revolver.”
分詞構文後 : “Opening the drawer, the suspect took out a revolver.”
分詞構文前 : “The policeman fired his gun. As a result, the gangsters were wounded.”
分詞構文後 : ”The policeman fired his gun, wounding the gangsters.”

B) 発展編


Tom: (そわそわして)“What are you reading?”
Mary: “Selected Stories of O. Henry.”
Tom: “I read them at prep school.”
Mary: “Which one did you like best?”
Tom: (満面に笑みを浮かべて)“The Romance of a Busy Broker. Being completely absorbed in selling and buying stocks, a broker forgot that he had married his secretary. How about you?”
Mary: “The Last Leaf.”
Tom: (ニヤリとして)“I remember that one too. Falling leaves made a sick girl want to die.
She survived thanks to an old painter living downstairs. It was a moving act.”
Mary: (鬱陶しげに)“It was more than a moving act. But let’s concentrate on our studies.
You will flunk if you just stare at me.”
Tom: (むっとして)“I am not staring at you. I am studying.”
Mary: (蔑むように)“You are not. You are watching my legs.”
Tom: (強がって)“I am not interested in your legs.”
Mary: “Then we have got at least one thing in common. I am not interested in your legs either.”


C) 自己練習編

例1) 時鳥(ホトトギス)の囀りに春を感じた時
“A singing cuckoo makes me realize that spring has come.”
例2) 芸術的と評価の高い映画を観て、自分にはどう解釈したらよいのか不明な時
“It was a rather puzzling film.”
例1) 川沿いを散歩していたら、偶然、近所の奥さんに出会った時
“Walking along the riverside, I happened to meet a wife of my neighbor.”
例2) 昼食を食べ終わると、同僚が急いで会社に戻った時
“Having eaten his lunch, he rushed back to the office.”

(注:“Eating his lunch, he rushed back to the office.”は、同僚が弁当を食べながら会社に戻ったとなる。完了形にすると、昼食を終えてから会社に戻ったという時系列が正確に伝わる)

例3) 倒れたら、ドアに頭をぶつけ、切り傷ができた時
“I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it.”


“Do you know the young lady wearing spectacles?”
“There is a lion roaring angrily in the cage.”
a) 第2文型
“The cat kept mewing all night.”
“The play was boring.”
“The work was tiring.”
“The scene was horrifying.”
b) 第5文型
“Every morning I see elementary school students passing the house.”
“I heard you talking in your sleep last night.”
“There was an earthquake last week, and I felt the house shaking.”
a) 決まり文句
God willing, there will be a breakthrough.” (順調に行けば)
Weather permitting, the ship is to leave port at noon.” (天候が十分によければ)
b) 主語を省いた決まり文句
Judging from the way he laughed as he told it, it was meant to be humorous.”
Strictly speaking, spiders are not insects.”
c) (with+(代)名詞+現在分詞)の構文
“We jumped into the water with bullets whizzing past our ears.”

(注:“whizzing”は“whiz”の現在分詞。“whiz past”はピューと音を立てて過ぎ去ること)

“I cannot sing with you listening beside me.”

 第12話 「生まれた生まれた・・・・・」

A) 基礎編


ルイーズ: “I’m terrified!”
サマンサ: “Why? It’s the most wonderful thing that could ever happen to a woman!”
ルイーズ: “I’m not so terrified of the thought of being a mother as I am of Larry being a father!”
ダーレン: “When we do have a child, what sort of child do you suppose it’ll be?”
サマンサ: “Your guess is as good as mine.”

B) 発展編


Nancy: “Last night should not happen again.”
Taro: “Why? I was happy. Were you not?”
Nancy: “We are no more than friends. We are no less than friends. We are just friends.”
Taro: “What does it take for me to be more than your friend?”
Nancy: “I cannot be more than your friend.”
Taro: “Your kiss has turned me on.”
Nancy: “I am sorry for that.”
Taro: “Now I understand why you said you were sorry.”
Nancy: “Can we stay as friends?”
Taro: “Of course. Is there anything I can do for you?”
Nancy: “Yes, there is.”
Taro: “What is it?”
Nancy: “I want to tell it in person. Can I see you at the weekly meeting next week?”
Taro: “Sure. I will see you next week. Have a nice day!”
Nancy: “Same to you. Bye now.”

C) 自己練習編

a) “(A) ∼ [as +形容詞+ as] (B)”
例1) 子供たちの身長が自分と同じくらいになった時
“My children are as tall as I.”
例2) 英和辞典と英英辞典の両方を抱えた人を見た時
“He has twice as many dictionaries as I.”
b) “(A) ∼ [as+副詞+as] (B)”
例1) マイペースで仕事をする同僚がいる時
“He works as slowly as he dares.”
例2) 拡声器を使って選挙演説する立候補者に接した時
“She speaks as loudly as she intends.”
この場合には、(A)と(B)の間に a)形容詞が来ても b)副詞が来ても、それぞれ三通りの表現方法があります。例を参考に、日常生活の各場面でそれぞれの表現を使ってみましょう。
a) 形容詞
i) “(A) ∼ [not as+形容詞+as] (B)”
例) 友人が淹れてくれたコーヒーが、母親が淹れたコーヒーほど美味しくなかった時
“Your coffee is not as good as the coffee my mother makes.”

(注:否定文では、“not as ~ as”の代わりに、“no so~ as”としてもよい。例では “Your coffee is not so good as the coffee my mother makes.”となる。但し、前者は口語的で後者は文語的という違いがある)

ii) “(A) ∼ [形容詞の比較級+than] (B)”
例) 向こうの方にメルセデス・ベンツに乗った家族が見えた時
“They are richer than we.”

(注:フル・センテンスでは“They are richer than we are rich.”なので、“than”のあとには例のように“we”が続くが、この表現は文語的で、口語では“than us”とするのが一般的)

iii) “(A) ∼ [more+形容詞+than] (B)”
例) 好きな作家の最新出版が処女作よりも面白かった時
“His latest publication is more interesting than his maiden work.”

(注1:形容詞に音節が3つ以上ある場合には、iii)のように“more”を使って比較級を作る。音節が2つの場合には、ii)のように語尾に“er”を追加して比較級を作る。しかし、音節が2つあり、且つ、その単語の語尾が“-er”, “-y”, “-ly”であれば下の<Case A>となり、“-ful”, “-re”であれば下の<Case B>となる。

<Case A>(語尾が -er, -y , -ly):clever→cleverer, pretty→prettier, holy→holier
<Case B>(語尾が -ful, -re):doubtful→ more doubtful, obscure→ more obscure

(注2:音節とは、発音の最小単位のことで、“a”, “e”, “i”, “o”, “u”の母音の内の1つを含む。例えば、“book”は母音が1つしかないので1音節の単語である。一方、“reading”には母音が2つあるので2音節の単語となる。実際に発音して見ると分かる)

b) 副詞
i) “(A) ∼ [not as+副詞+as] (B)”
例) 自分ほど賢く投資をしない友人がいた時
“He does not invest his money as (so) wisely as I.”
ii) “(A) ∼ [副詞の比較級+than] (B)”
例) 顧客を訪問したら、ライバル会社は朝一番で来たと言われた時
“They work harder than we (us).”
iii) “(A) ∼ [more+副詞+than] (B)”
例) 自分よりも友人の方が食事をするスピードが速い時
“He eats more quickly than I (me).”



繰り返しになりますが、比較級は(A)と(B)を比較する表現です。数式での表現は、(A)=(B)、(A)>(B)など、極めて単純です。しかし、(A)や(B)が数値ではなく、頭に浮かんだアイデアだと、その表現方法は限りなくあります。ここでは、 (A)=(B)か、それとも(A)>(B)なのか、すっと理解できない表現を6つ挙げます。比較の表現はイタリックとしました。和訳を付けてあります。和訳によって、話者が何を伝えようとしているのか確認してださい。
may (might) just as well”
Tom: “I will go on Monday by train.”
Juliet: “You might just as well wait till Tuesday and go by plane.”
トム: 「月曜日に汽車で行くことにしたよ」
ジュリエット: 「それもいいけれど、火曜日まで待って飛行機で行ってもいいんじゃないの」
“no less~than”
“Kate is no less beautiful than Anne is beautiful.”

“Kate is not beautiful any less than Anne is beautiful.”)

“no more~than”
“Richard is no more foolish than you are foolish.”

“Richard is not foolish any more than you are foolish.”)

“would rather”
“I would rather die than apologize to Helen.”
“not so much as~as”
“Greg is not so much as a scholar as an educator.
“I could not be happier.”
この表現には(A)・(B)が明示されていません。(A)も(B)も話者の頭の中にはあります。ネイティブ・スピーカー同士の会話では、(A)が何で、(B)が何かが相手に伝わります。人気テレビ・ドラマであった“Dr. House”の第3シーズン・最終話に、それが確認できる台詞が出てきます。
Foreman: “You are miserable.”
House: “I just solved a case by predicting a never-before-seen heart defect. A case you could not solve. A case you gave up on. I couldn’t be happier.
部下だったフォアマンに蔑まされたハウスが、彼に言い返す台詞です。「幸せになろうとしても、これ以上幸せにはなれないよ」と言っています。つまり、今が一番幸せだということです。(A)は今で、(B)は今の否定の上に立って、それではどうなったら自分は幸せと感じるかという仮定の世界になります。そんな世界は想像できないので、“I couldn’t be happier.”となります。そう言われたフォアマンはプライドを傷つけられ、ハウスの許を去って行きます。