第3話 「犬になったお客様」

A) 基礎編


例文1: “She arrived back in Paris from London.”
例文2: “She competed keenly with her colleagues for the position.”
例文3: “Father exploded loudly when he saw my report card.”
バーカー: “She’s quite a girl.”
ルイーズ: “Brandy sounds wonderful.”

B) 発展編


男子学生: “I am a Harvard University student.”
女子学生: “I am a Radcllife College student.”
男子学生: “Do you have this book?”
女子学生: “You should go to your own library.”
男子学生: “It stands on a hill.”
女子学生: (失笑する)“You have two legs.”
男子学生: “We are allowed to use this library.”
女子学生: “You sound snobbish.”
男子学生: (強い声で)“Look, my French exam will start in 24 hours. I need this book now.”
女子学生: “You want to be an ‘A’ student, preppy.”
男子学生: “Why do you think I was a preppy?”
女子学生: “You look stupid and rich.”
男子学生: (むっとして)“I am smart and poor.”
女子学生: “I am smart and poor.”
男子学生: “Why are you so smart?”
女子学生: “I will not have coffee with you.”
男子学生: “I would not ask you.”
女子学生: (愉快げに)“That is why you are stupid.”

(注1:1970年パラマウント映画制作“Love Story”から想を得ました)



C) 自己練習編

a) begin, come, walk, live, carry, change, knock, skate, bow, (there+be動詞), etc.
例1) 横浜駅で乗り換えて、東京まで行く時
“I must change for Tokyo at Yokohama station.”
例2) 夜、飲み会がある時
“There will be a party this evening.”
例3) 仕事のプロジェクトが今日から始まる時
“The project begins today.”
不完全自動詞は(主語+動詞+補語)の第2文型をとります。発展編で採り上げた“am (be動詞)”、“sound”、“look”などの他に、つぎのようなものがあります。
a) lie, keep, remain, appear, feel, become, get, grow, turn, fall, run, taste, etc.
例1) イタリアンのレストランに行き、「そのパスタ、味はどう」と訊かれた時
“It tastes good.”
例2) テレビを見ていて「この芸人、つまらなくなったね」と言われた時
“Every entertainer becomes a bore at last.”
例3) ハンカチを買いに行き、店員から「これは高級品です」と手渡された時
“This handkerchief feels soft.”


完全自動詞は(主語+動詞)の構文で成立しますが、実際には意味のある文とするために、副詞的修飾語が添えられます。例1)では“for Tokyo at Yokohama station”が該当します。プロセスに分けて文を作ってみます。自己練習の参考としてください。
(主語+動詞): “I go.”
(京都に行く): “I go to Kyoto.”
(あした行く): “I will go to Kyoto tomorrow.”
“there is”, “there are”などの“there+be動詞”の構文は、第1文型の変種です。“there”は文法上、形式語と呼ばれるもので、実質的な意味はありません。
“He got angry at the message.”
“Things are getting worse with us.”
“You are getting big, John.”
“The food got cold.
“It’s getting cool these days.”
“You had better go home before it gets dark.
“I’ll get even with you someday.”
“If you eat so much chocolate, you’ll get fat.
“Things are getting better.
“It is getting late.
“The fire is getting low.
“I must get ready to start.”
“She gets red in the face when a man speaks to her.”
“I hope you will get used to the way things are done over there.”
“She will return to her post as soon as she gets well again.”
“I hope you’ll soon get wise to our way of doing things.”

 第4話 「ままならぬ魔女のママ」

A) 基礎編


サマンサ: “I’m planting gladiolas.”
エンドーラ: “You’re making a fool of yourself.”
ジューン: “We brought you this cake as sort of a housewarming gift.”
グラディス: “I’m just asking you a simple question.”
ダーレン: “Can I make you a drink?”

B) 発展編



Taro: “What can I do for you?”
Nancy: (白けて)“Don’t’ be so detached. Do you play any games?”
Taro: “I watch them. I like to watch Sumo.”
Nancy: “I watch it on TV too. I want to see real Sumo wrestlers.”
Taro: “I have two tickets to Kokugikan. Do you want to come with me?”
Nancy: “Yes. I will enjoy myself very much.”
Taro: “You will be the first foreign student to see real Sumo wrestlers. But you must not lord it over other foreign students.”
Nancy: (再び白けて)“You are being detached again. Are you not our friends?”
Taro: (微笑して)“Yes, I am. Let’s go to somewhere quiet after the Sumo matches.”
Nancy: (困惑して)“Don’t get me wrong. The plate on the desk says ‘Friends of Foreign Students’. That is all, okay!”



Tom: “I am Tom.”
Mary: “Tom like Tom Sawyer?”
Tom: “Yes, just older. What is your name?”
Mary: “I am Mary.”
Tom: (意地悪く)“Mary like the Queen of England?”
Mary: (むっとして)“No. Mary like the Queen of Scotland. I am not bloody.”
Tom: “I major in philosophy. What is yours?”
Mary: “Comparative Literature. Professor Hill will teach us English grammar this semester.”
Tom: “English grammar is complicated. For example, ‘I will give a flower to her’ is the same as ‘I will give her a flower’. But ‘I will give a flower for her’ is not.’”
Mary: “I cannot believe a Harvard student majoring in philosophy has such a simple question.”
Tom: (怒って)“If you think I am stupid, why did you bulldoze me into buying you coffee?”
Mary: (間をおいて)“I like your body.”
Tom: (沈黙)

(注:“bulldoze me into buying”は、有無を言わせずにおごらせるという意味)

C) 自己練習編

a) wish, finish, think, laugh, smile, help, hope, insist, etc.
例1) 今度の試験で満点を取りたい時
“I wish to get full marks in the next examination.”
例2) 本を読み終えた時
“I have just finished reading the book.”
例3) いつの日かアメリカに行こうと考えた時
“I think that I will go to America some day.”
a) lend, pay, sell, send, bring, tell, show, make, get, leave, save, forgive, take, etc.
例1) レストランで「お水をお持ちしましょうか」と訊かれた時
“Yes. Bring me some water, please.”
例2) 失業中に、「仕事が見つかるといいね」と言われた時
“My friends will find me a fine job very soon.”
例3) 友人から、「今度、家を買うことにした」と言われた時
“It will cost you a great deal of money.”




自動詞: “School begins at eight-thirty.” (目的語はない)
他動詞: “I began reading a new book.” (“reading”が目的語)


自動詞: “Mark became a lawyer.” (“lawyer”は補語で、目的語ではない)
他動詞: “Blue really becomes her.” (“her”は目的語で、補語ではない)
a) 意図・決心・希望を表す動詞は不定詞を目的語とすることが多い。
“I hope to go there with you.”
b) 状態を問題にする動詞は、動名詞を目的語とすることが多い。
“We enjoyed listening to music.”
c) 思考・言説を表す動詞は名詞節を目的語とすることが多い。
“He insists that he saw a UFO.”
a) “to”をつけて後置できる動詞
“I will tell the price to her.” (原文:“I will tell her the price.”)
b) “for”をつけて後置できる動詞
“I will make the violin for him.”  (原文:“I will make him the violin.”)
c) 語順が固定していて、後置できない動詞
“It takes me twenty-five minutes to go to school.”
“He explained to me how he found such a good job.” (“He explained me...”ではない)
“He suggested to me that we should walk carefully.” (“He suggested me...”ではない)